新兵入伍第1年在所属军兵种新兵学校接受为期15周的军事基础训练，此后直到42周岁每隔1年到部队参加1 次复训，共10次，每次19-20天，总受训时间为300天，士官的总受训时间为460-670天，尉官为770-900天，校官为1050-1300 天，将官视情况而定，一般高于1300天。各级军官最高服役年限，将官为52岁（可根据需要服役至62岁）。校官为52岁，尉官为42岁（其中上尉可根据需要服役至52岁）。民兵军人退出现役后自动转为民防役。自1999年1月1日起，公民服民防役的年限由原来的52岁降为50岁。
Switzerland has mandatory military service for all able-bodied male citizens, who are conscripted when they reach the age of majority, though women may volunteer for any position. People determined unfit for service, where fitness is defined as "satisfying physically, intellectually and psychological requirements for military service or civil protection service and being capable of accomplishing these services without harming oneself or others", are exempted from service but pay a 3% additional annual income tax until the age of 37, unless they are affected by a disability. Almost 20% of all conscripts were found unfit for military or civilian service in 2008; the rate is generally higher in urban cantons such as Zurich and Geneva than in the rural ones. Swiss citizens living abroad are generally exempted from conscription in time of peace while dual citizenship by itself does not grant such exemption.